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A case control study on risk factors associated with drug addiction amongst Malaysian males

Azhar, Md Zain Rampal, Sanjay Rampal, Lekhraj
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences. 2007; 3(2): 17-27

Objectives: Drug addiction poses a significant threat to the health, social and economic fabric of families, communities and nations. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with drug addiction amongst Malaysian males. Methods: A population-based case control study was carried out in Johor state. Cases were defined as confirmed male drug dependents aged 15 and above. Controls were defined as those aged 15 and above who had never used illegal drugs in their lifetime. A total of 1016 cases were selected at random from a list obtained from the state anti-drug agency and 1106 controls were sampled from a population-based sampling frame. After obtaining verbal consent, they were interviewed by trained graduates. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using Stata V8.2. The final model was adjusted for smoking, age, alcohol consumption, importance of religion, ethnicity, education level and self-esteem. Results: The final model had good fit (p>0.05) and good discrimination (AUC=0.94). Compared with those aged 15-19 years, the highest risk was amongst the 20-29 years age group (adjusted OR(aOR) 7.2; 95%CI=3.8,13.7) followed by the 30-39 year age group (aOR 5.4; 95%CI=2.9, 10.2) and 40-49 year age groups (aOR 5.0; 95 %CI=2.6, 9.8). Being an ever-smoker was highly associated with drug addiction (aOR 98.7; 95%CI=28.7, 339.5). Compared with the Chinese, Malays (aOR 7.4; 95%CI=4.9, 11.2) and Indians (aOR 3.8; 95%CI=2. 1,7.0) had a higher risk of drug addiction. Drug addiction was associated with disagreeing "that religion is important as guidance in their life" (aOR 16.2;95 %CI=8.3, 31.9), and a history of alcohol consumption (aOR 7.6; 95%CI=5.6, 10.4). Conclusion: In conclusion the important risk factors associated with drug addiction is smoking, ethnicity, age, education level, alcohol consumption and not giving importance to religion as guidance in their life. However an increased self-esteem (aOR 0.6; 95%CI=0.4,0.5) is protective against drug addiction.


A Clinical Survey of Paraquat Formulation Workers.

Howard J. K.
Br J Ind Med. 1979; 36(3): 220-3

A group of 18 male Caucasian workers from the United Kingdom and a further group of 18 male mixed race (mainly Malay) workers from Malaysia employed in the formulation of paraquat-based herbicides were examined for evidence of chronic ill health after long-term exposure to paraquat. Clinical records were examined, medical and occupational histories were obtained and a clinical examination, particularly of the skin, was undertaken. Skin rashes, nail damage and epistaxes were encountered by most workers as a result of direct contact of skin and mucous membranes with paraquat. These conditions subsided rapidly and no worker reported any sequelae. There was no clinical evidence of long-term effects on skin, mucous membranes or general health following exposure to paraquat over several years in these workers.


A comparative study of cost and quality of life among Skeletal Related Events (SRE) and non-SRE among breast and prostate cancer patients in Malaysia. [Abstract]

Khamis Noraziani, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Aljunid Syed Zafar Ahmed.
BMC Health Services Research. 2012; 12(Suppl 1): P4

Background. The human skeleton is the most common organ to be affected by metastatic cancer (skeletal or bone metastases). The prevalence of skeletal disease is greatest in breast and prostate carcinoma. Bone metastases lesions weaken bone structure, causing a range of symptoms and complications. Sufferers of breast and prostate cancers may develop Skeletal related events (SRE). These SRE are defined as pain that require palliative radiotherapy or surgery to bone, hypercalcaemia, pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression and bone marrow failure. These complications contribute to a decline in patients' HRQOL (health related quality of life). However, information on treatment costs of breast and prostate cancers and multidimensional assessments of QOL are limited. Thus this study aim to obtain both cost and QOL of breast and prostate cancers patients and to determine their relationship with the patients sociodemograhic profiles (age, ethnicity, income) and disease profile (tumour types, cancer stages and SRE status). Objective. To determine the health care cost and QOL of breast and prostate cancer patients in Malaysia. The association of risk factors (sociodemographic and diseases profiles including SRE status) and cost and QOL will later be determined through statistical analysis. Methodology. This will be a societal approach, cost evaluation technique through a cross sectional study for a projected period of 9 months. Both qualitative and quantitative approach to estimate the health care cost of provider and patientís cost through microcosting questionnaire method. Patientís QOL will be using the locally validated EORTC-QLC-C30 questionnaire. Selected patients from oncologic and surgical wards, outpatients specialists clinics will be taken as respondents. Outcomes of study will include cost to treat a case of SRE and projected country's burden of SRE from both cancer. Other outcomes will be compared between SRE and non-SRE through measurements of cost per QALYs; cost per life years saved (LYS) and cost per deaths averted. Associated risk factors will be measured by bivariate and multivariate analyses with power of study of 80% and p value of 0.05. Expected result. The cost of treatment among prostate and breast cancer patient of lower disease compared to those of higher stages, positive bone metastasis and SRE positive. The QOL will also be expected to be higher among these groups. By similar disease stages for each cancer types, the QOL and costs are expected to be similar. Conclusion. This information will provide the cost burden of breast and prostate cancers for the country and will be used for strategic planning for the country. Patients with risk of lower QOL will also be identified for better risk assessment during cancer managements.


A Comparative Study of Nutritional Status of Men with Differing Meat Intakes, Vegetarian and Vegans. Abstract].

Periasamy H. M., S. Misra, H. Ismet, S. Norshafarina, and S. I. Syarifah Nursyimi.
Malaysian journal of nutrition. 2006; 12(2): 65-65

Dietary factors play role in human health. The aim of this study was to assess the nutrient intakes of meat eaters, eating different quantities of meat with those who were habitual vegetarians or vegans. Eighty healthy male subjects (vegans, n=20; ovolacto-vegetarians, n=20; moderate meat eater, n=20; high meat eater, n=20) aged 25-50 years were selected randomly inIpoh, Perak city. Each subject completed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and their blood samples (fasting venous blood sample) tested for haemaglobin and serum ferritin levels. The characteristic of samples showed that high meat intakers had significantly higher BMI. Blood pressure showed that the decreasing trend from both meat eaters to vegan and OV groups. Dietary energy and fat were higher among high meat- eaters. Vegan diets showed a lower amount of protein and iron intakes than the other groups. Dietary sodium/potassium ratio was lower and fibre was higher in both vegan and OV groups. Retinol intakes were higher in high meat eaters than the other groups. This study showed that haemoglobin was within the normal range and ferritin concentrations were lower in vegan group. There are differences between the four diet groups that have potential to affect the subjects' health and susceptibility to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Based on the present data, high meat-eaters may particularly benefit from altering their dietary pattern to reduce their sodium and fat intake, and moderate meat-eaters from increasing their fibre and antioxidant consumption. Vegetarians, especially vegans, may need to increase their protein and iron intake.


A Comparison of Hydration Effect on Body Fluid and Temperature Regulation between Malaysian and Japanese Males Exercising at Mild Dehydration in Humid Heat.

Wakabayashi H., T. Wijayanto, J. Y. Lee, N. Hashiguchi, M. Saat, and Y. Tochihara.
J Physiol Anthropol. 2014; 33( N/A): 5

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of hydration differences on body fluid and temperature regulation between tropical and temperate indigenes exercising in the heat. METHODS: Ten Japanese and ten Malaysian males with matched physical characteristics (height, body weight, and peak oxygen consumption) participated in this study. Participants performed exercise for 60 min at 55% peak oxygen uptake followed by a 30-min recovery at 32 degrees C and 70% relative air humidity with hydration (4 times each, 3 mL per kg body weight, 37 degrees C) or without hydration. Rectal temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, skin blood flow, and blood pressure were measured continuously. The percentage of body weight loss and total sweat loss were calculated from body weight measurements. The percentage change in plasma volume was estimated from hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. RESULTS: Malaysian participants had a significantly lower rectal temperature, a smaller reduction in plasma volume, and a lower heart rate in the hydrated condition than in the non-hydrated condition at the end of exercise (P <0.05), whereas Japanese participants showed no difference between the two hydration conditions. Hydration induced a greater total sweat loss in both groups (P <0.05), and the percentage of body weight loss in hydrated Malaysians was significantly less than in hydrated Japanese (P <0.05). A significant interaction between groups and hydration conditions was observed for the percentage of mean cutaneous vascular conductance during exercise relative to baseline (P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The smaller reduction in plasma volume and percentage body weight loss in hydrated Malaysians indicated an advantage in body fluid regulation. This may enable Malaysians to reserve more blood for circulation and heat dissipation and thereby maintain lower rectal temperatures in a hydrated condition.



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