Abu Bakar, Abdul Majid Lokman, H. Johari Amal Nasir, Mustafa Anselm, S. T. Chan, W. H. Noraziah, Abdul Rahman Norliza, Ibrahim Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala Nurul, M. Omar
Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine. 2002; 2(2): 32-35
A cross-sectional study conducted in the fasting month of Ramadan targeting muslim males assessed their religious beliefs in relation to smoking and their intentions to quit smoking in Ramadan. It was found that there is a strong association between their perceptions on the religious ruling of smoking as haram (prohibited) in relation to their smoking status. Among the non smokers and ex smokers, 87.8% and 73.6% respectively accept the ruling on smoking as prohibited (haram), while only 31.6% of smokers accept smoking as prohibited. Among the smokers, 97.7% smoke a lesser number of cigarettes during Ramadan, while 96.7% of them felt that it is easier to quit during the fasting month. The findings suggest that the religious department needs to provide more information and education to the Muslim population as to the reasons of the ruling on smoking as haram(prohibited) on religious grounds . It was also found that the majority felt it is easier to quit during Ramadan and hence intervention on quit smoking programmes can be emphasized and carried out on a bigger scale during fasting months in the future. Keyword: smoking, Ramadan; smoking status; prohibition(haram); quit smoking
Backer, Larry Cata
Yale Journal of Law & Feminism. 2005; 17(1):
This paper focuses on an area of study largely neglected in feminist theory - the development of gender differentiation within masculinity, and its application in law in three socio-culturally distinct communities. In the United States, rumors of homosexuality surfaced in the non-elite press to demonize and explain the motivation of Mohammed Atta, one of the suicide pilots of September 11, 2001, Jonathon Walker Lindh, the American Taliban and John Mohammed and Lee Boyd (John) Malvo, the D.C. snipers of 2002. In Zimbabwe, the sodomy trial of Zimbabwe's first President provided a focal point for the campaign to de-colonize the law of Zimbabwe from an effeminate corrupting foreign law and reinforce rulings on the gendered consequences of a reconstituted customary law. In Malaysia, the Deputy Prime Minister, Anwar Ibrahim, was convicted of corruption and sodomy, in actions instigated by the Prime Minister, after Anwar had criticized him for political and economic corruption. Within a variety of very distinct cultures, certain male wrongdoers are also represented as homosexual. This characterization draws upon a locally powerful logic, which varies with the cultural context. The insertion of allegations of sexual deviance in each case serves to amplify and fix the other allegations of consequentially bad behavior. This process reiterates the deviant nature of homosexuality, and reinforces the association of homosexual behavior with characteristics that are undesirable in men specifically and people in a more general sense. Since proscriptions of homosexuality at their core seek to prohibit particular behavior that appears to invert a natural order based on conceptions of appropriate gender behavior, the homosexual accusation functions to conflate undesirable characteristics - weakness, illness, corruption or impurity - with defective manhood, and thus with the not-male. Ironically, strengthening this association enables the gendered foundations of behavior regulation without a loss of its regulatory power. Thus, the gendered character of behavior norms disappears, in neutral discourse: science in the U.S., customary law in Zimbabwe, and Islam in Malaysia. Though such systems of conflation appears to affect only relations between men, in actuality, the power of gendering behavior among men has strong spillover effects on all social ordering. Behavior or expectations unreasonable for men will be generalized for the population as a whole as necessarily undesirable and gendered female or not-male. Because each of these episodes takes place on a legal stage, they each give force to a system based on gendered behavior and the association of that gender system with locally powerful logics. This in turn authenticates and legitimizes the resulting conduct system in the neutral terms of the culture in which it is served up. Memorialized as law, the political system can then embrace gendered behavior in culturally acceptable non-gendered terms.
Dangerfield D. T., 2nd, Gravitt P., Rompalo A. M., Yap I., Tai R., Lim S. H
International Journal of STD & AIDS. 2015; 26(1): 20-26
In Malaysia, homosexuality is illegal; little is known about access to HIV prevention services among Malaysian men who have sex with men (MSM). We analysed PT Foundation outreach data to describe the profiles among MSM who accessed PT Foundation services and to examine factors associated with being aware of PT Foundation and having visited the organization. A survey was administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur from March-December 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of participants who were and were not aware of the PT Foundation. Binary logistic regression was used to identify correlates of MSM visiting the PT Foundation among those who had heard of the organization. Of 614 MSM, this study found significantly higher awareness of the PT Foundation among MSM who perceived they had "good" HIV knowledge (p = .026) and participants who reported always using condoms (p = .009). MSM who reported being paid for sex were 2.81 times as likely to visit the PT Foundation compared to men who did not. A subgroup of MSM known to be at high risk for HIV infection is accessing prevention services. Future studies should uncover motivations and barriers of accessing these services among MSM in Malaysia.
My aim in this article is to problematise the heteronormalised interlacings of citizenship, ethnicity, masculinity, ascendancy, morality, matrimony and religion among Malaysian Malay-Muslim men through queer analyses. The civil partnership of Malaysian Ariff Alfian Rosli caused considerable tumult among many Malay-Muslims in Malaysia, dislodging an entrenched image of heteronormative masculinity. I argue that Ariffís resoluteness in faith has irrevocably fractured heteronormative familiarities and opened up new avenues for a reconsideration of Syariah legalities on sexuality for non-heteronormative Malaysian Malay-Muslim men. Keywords Islam, Malaysian Malay-Muslim masculinity, non-heteronormative sexualities, queer lived religion, Syariah laws