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Male breast cancer: experience from a Malaysian tertiary centre.

Ngoo KS, Rohaizak M, Naqiyah I, et al.
Singapore Med J. 2009; 50(5): 519-52

Introduction: Breast cancer is a rare condition among men with a reported incidence of about one percent. Nevertheless, it is thought to behave similarly in both genders. Due to its rarity, male breast cancer is not widely reported, especially in the Asian population. Methods: In a five-year review of our breast cancer surgery series, about 1.6 percent involved male patients. There was a substantial delay in presentation among those men, whose mean age at presentation was 64 years. Results: The majority of patients presented with a painless lump. Histologically, all tumours were ductal in origin and all patients had lower than stage III malignancies. The majority of patients underwent mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection. All male patients were commenced on adjuvant tamoxifen. The longest survival was 54 months with all patients remaining tumour-free. Conclusion: Malaysian men are at risk of breast cancer and seem to have a better prognosis


Relationships between cancer pattern, country income and geographical region in Asia

Ng CJ, Teo CH, Abdullah N, et al.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15(1): 613

Background: Cancer incidence and mortality varies across region, sex and country’s economic status. While most studies focused on global trends, this study aimed to describe and analyse cancer incidence and mortality in Asia, focusing on cancer site, sex, region and income status. Methods: Age-standardised incidence and mortality rates of cancer were extracted from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. Cancer mortality to incidence ratios (MIRs) were calculated to represent cancer survival. The data were analysed based on the four regions in Asia and income. Results: Cancer incidence rate is lower in Asia compared to the West but for MIR, it is the reverse. In Asia, the most common cancers in men are lung, stomach, liver, colorectal and oesophageal cancers while the most common cancers in women are breast, lung, cervical, colorectal and stomach cancers. The MIRs are the highest in lung, liver and stomach cancers and the lowest in colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Eastern and Western Asia have a higher incidence of cancer compared to South-Eastern and South-Central Asia but this pattern is the reverse for MIR. Cancer incidence rate increases with country income particularly in colorectal and breast cancers but the pattern is the opposite for MIR. Conclusion: This study confirms that there is a wide variation in cancer incidence and mortality across Asia. This study is the first step towards documenting and explaining the changing cancer pattern in Asia in comparison to the rest of the world.


Oral carcinoma in Malaysian Indian males.

Ramanathan K, Lakshimi S.
Singapore Dent J . 1974; 13(2):


Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

Chen CK, Mohamad WM, Ooi FK, et al.
Int J Prev Med . 2014; 12(3): 376-380

BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta(®) a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. METHODS: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. RESULTS: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta(®) at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions.


What are the antioxidant status predictors' factors among male chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients?

Pirabbasi E, Najafiyan M, Cheraghi M, et al.
Glob J Health Sci . 2012; 5(1): 70-78

Imbalance between antioxidant and oxidative stress is a major risk factor for pathogenesis of some chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to determine antioxidant and oxidative stress status, and also theirs association with respiratory function of male COPD patients to find the antioxidant predictors’ factors. A total of 149 subjects were involved in a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at two medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results of the study showed that plasma vitamin C was low in most of the subjects (86.6%). Total antioxidant capacity was the lowest in COPD stage IV compare to other stages (p < 0.05). Level of plasma vitamin A (p= 0.012) and vitamin C (p= 0.007) were low in malnourished subjects. The predictors for total antioxidant capacity were forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted and intake of β-carotene (R2 = 0.104, p= 0.002). Number of cigarette (pack/ year) and smoking index (number/ year) were not associated with total antioxidant capacity of this COPD population. Plasma oxidative stress as assessed plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO) was only positively correlated with plasma glutathione (p= 0.002). It might be a need to evaluate antioxidant status especially in older COPD patients to treat antioxidant deficiency which is leading to prevent COPD progression.


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