Murder is the most notorious crime that violates religious, social and cultural norms. Examining the types and number of different killing methods that used are pivotal in a murder case. However, the psychological traits underlying specific and multiple killing methods are still understudied. The present study attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by identifying the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods among Malaysian murderers. The study adapted an observational cross-sectional methodology using a guided self-administered questionnaire for data collection. The sampling frame consisted of 71 Malaysian male murderers from 11 Malaysian prisons who were selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were also asked to provide the types and number of different killing methods used to kill their respective victims. An independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score difference of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple types of killing methods. Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences between specific types of killing methods. The results suggest that specific psychological traits underlie the type and number of different killing methods used during murder. The majority (88.7%) of murderers used a single method of killing. Multiple methods of killing was evident in 'premeditated' murder compared to 'passion' murder, and revenge was a common motive. Examples of multiple methods are combinations of stabbing and strangulation or slashing and physical force. An exception was premeditated murder committed with shooting, when it was usually a single method, attributed to the high lethality of firearms. Shooting was also notable when the motive was financial gain or related to drug dealing. Murderers who used multiple killing methods were more aggressive and sadistic than those who used a single killing method. Those who used multiple methods or slashing also displayed a higher level of minimisation traits. Despite its limitations, this study has provided some light on the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods which is useful in the field of criminology.
Azhar, Md Zain Rampal, Sanjay Rampal, Lekhraj
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences. 2007; 3(2): 17-27
Objectives: Drug addiction poses a significant threat to the health, social and economic fabric of families, communities and nations. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with drug addiction amongst Malaysian males. Methods: A population-based case control study was carried out in Johor state. Cases were defined as confirmed male drug dependents aged 15 and above. Controls were defined as those aged 15 and above who had never used illegal drugs in their lifetime. A total of 1016 cases were selected at random from a list obtained from the state anti-drug agency and 1106 controls were sampled from a population-based sampling frame. After obtaining verbal consent, they were interviewed by trained graduates. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using Stata V8.2. The final model was adjusted for smoking, age, alcohol consumption, importance of religion, ethnicity, education level and self-esteem. Results: The final model had good fit (p>0.05) and good discrimination (AUC=0.94). Compared with those aged 15-19 years, the highest risk was amongst the 20-29 years age group (adjusted OR(aOR) 7.2; 95%CI=3.8,13.7) followed by the 30-39 year age group (aOR 5.4; 95%CI=2.9, 10.2) and 40-49 year age groups (aOR 5.0; 95 %CI=2.6, 9.8). Being an ever-smoker was highly associated with drug addiction (aOR 98.7; 95%CI=28.7, 339.5). Compared with the Chinese, Malays (aOR 7.4; 95%CI=4.9, 11.2) and Indians (aOR 3.8; 95%CI=2. 1,7.0) had a higher risk of drug addiction. Drug addiction was associated with disagreeing "that religion is important as guidance in their life" (aOR 16.2;95 %CI=8.3, 31.9), and a history of alcohol consumption (aOR 7.6; 95%CI=5.6, 10.4). Conclusion: In conclusion the important risk factors associated with drug addiction is smoking, ethnicity, age, education level, alcohol consumption and not giving importance to religion as guidance in their life. However an increased self-esteem (aOR 0.6; 95%CI=0.4,0.5) is protective against drug addiction.
INTRODUCTION: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in men. The aim of the study was to determine the depressive symptoms and associated factors among men on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 108 subjects who attended the Drug Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur. The instruments used include the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition Axis-I Disorder, Beck Depression Inventory and the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function. RESULTS: The rate of depression was 44.4%. There were significant associations between Malay ethnicity, secondary education level and concurrent illicit cannabis use with depression (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant associations between depression and erectile dysfunction (P = 0.379). DISCUSSION: Even though depression is common among men on MMT, it is often missed by the treating doctors. It is important to make the treating doctors aware that depression is a serious clinical condition that has a profound impact on the individual and compliance to treatment.
Azlin, Baharuddin Salina Akhtar, Md Yusof Nik Ruzyanei, Nik Jaafar Hazli, Zakaria Normala, J.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences. 2010; 6(2): 65-70
IIntroduction: In recent years there has been an increase in the number of young people in prison. This study is the first to look at the proportion of psychiatric disorders among young adult prisoners. Objective: The main objective is to determine the percentage of psychiatric disorders among young adult male prisoners. Method: A cross sectional study of young adult male prisoners, with ages ranged between 18 and 21 years old, was conducted between September and December, 2008 at the Kajang Prison. A total of 225 inmates participated in the study which used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as its instrument. Results: The percentage of psychiatric disorders was 60.0%. Alcohol and substance related disorders had the highest prevalence at 50.2%, followed by Major Depressive Disorders and Dysthymia at 16.9%. About 39.6% were observed to have antisocial personality disordet Psychiatric disorders were found to have significant differences (p
Dan Siew Peng, Chin Y. S., Md Nasir Md Taib.
Malaysian journal of nutrition. 2006; 12(2): 86-87
A cross sectional study was conducted to compare the differences in body image, andenergy balance between overweight male and female adolescents in Kuantan, Pahang.By a multi-stage sampling, a total of 1403 students (611 males and 792 females) aged 13and 14 years, attending four selected secondary schools in Kuantan district, were screened for their weight status. Of these, 301 (21.4%) adolescents (10.7% males, 10.7%females) were overweight and obese. From the 301 adolescents, 100 overweight andobese male and 100 overweight and obese female adolescents were randomly selected forthe present study. The respondents comprised 63.5% Malays, 27.5% Chinese,and 9.0%Indians witha mean ageof 13.6 ¬± 0.5 years. No significant associations were foundbetween socio-demographic factors and sex of the overweight respondents. Although amajority of the respondents (males: 55%; females: 67%) reported to have correct perception of their weight status, 39% male and 29% female respondents were underestimators, and 6%male and 4% female respondents were overestimators. Resultsshowed the female respondents have a greater body size discrepancy (t=7.523, p<0.000),desired a smaller ideal body size and all (100%) wished to reducetheir body weightcompared to 87% of malerespondents. More femalerespondents were dissatisfied withtheir body weight, hands, waist, hips, and legs than male respondents. Conversely, more male respondents were found to be dissatisfied with their chest than female respondents. As a whole, males were found to have a greater overall body parts satisfaction score thanfemales (t=4.061, p<0.000). With respect to energy expenditure, male respondents expended moreenergy than femalerespondents (t=3.232, p<0.001). There was asignificant association between energy balance and sex of the respondents (?2=4.442,p<0.01) whereby more female respondents (85%) were in negativeenergy balancecompared to the male respondents (67%). Based on EAT-26 scores, more malerespondents were prone to eating disorders (36.0%) compared to female adolescents(28.0%). However, there was no significant association between categorization of EAT-26scores and sex of the respondents (?2=1.471, p=0.289) indicating male and female respondents of this study wereequally at risk of eating disorders. Interestingly, there was a significant difference in bulimia and food preoccupation sub-scores of EAT-26 between thetwo groups (t=2.876, p<0.01). Although these subjects claimed that theyhad received information on weight management, a majority (males: 65%; females: 58%)had a low level of weight management knowledge. Future prevention intervention programs for overweight and obese adolescents should focus on promoting positive body image, healthy dietary practices and active lifestyle.