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A Survey on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) Among patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)

Hamzah A. A., Rahman M. N., Daud M. A., Mahamood Z.
The Malaysian journal of medical sciences : MJMS. 2007; 14(2): 67-71

Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) commonly presents with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which can be of obstructive symptoms such as hesitancy, incomplete voiding, post void dribbling or of irritative symptoms such as urgency, frequency and nocturia. Various recent studies indicate that nocturia is a very important and bothersome lower urinary tract symptom especially among patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). The aims of the study was to determine the frequency of common urinary symptoms among patients with BPH in HUSM as well as to evaluate the extent of bothersomeness of each and every symptom to these patients. This study too was aimed at evaluating the success of TURP in resolving pre operative LUTS. This was a questionnaire-based survey using a validated ICSBPH model whereby patients with BPH were selected and quizzed personally by an investigator. A subset of patients who had undergone TURP were further questioned regarding their satisfaction with the procedure. When nocturia is defined as waking up at night once or more to pass urine, the prevalence of nocturia was about 90%, but only 1 in 6 patients considered this is a very serious symptom. Even if the definition was changed to waking up twice or more, the prevalence is still quite high at over 80%. Urgency were noted in half of the patients, but only a quarter of them consider it a serious problem. 1 in 5 patients experienced significant leak and almost all consider it serious. About one third of the studied population had to be catheterized due to urinary obstruction and interestingly only about half of them considered it as a very serious event. Overall, a great majority of these patients considered suffering from these urinary symptoms for the rest of their life as very devastating. This study conclude that although the prevalence of nocturia was high among BPH patients, but it was not considered serious by majority of them. In fact, LUTS in our BPH patients did not differ much from BPH patients elsewhere. On the whole, TURP resolved most of the LUTS effectively.


Scrotal mass: a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt

Ho C. C., Jamaludin W. J., Goh E. H., Singam P., Zainuddin Z. M.
81-82. 2011; 54(2): 81-82

Summary: Ventriculoperitoneal shunts are associated with multiple complications. Among them are disconnection and migration of the tubing into the peritoneal cavity. Here we describe a case of a fractured ventriculoperitoneal shunt which migrated and coiled in the scrotum, masquerading as a scrotal swelling. Removal of the shunt via a scrotal incision was performed concomitantly with repair of the hernia sac.


Urinary bladder characteristics via ultrasound as predictors of acute urinary retention in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia

Ho C. C., Ngoo K. S., Hamzaini A. H., Md Rizal Abdul Manaf, Zulkifli M. Z.
75-81. 2014; 165(2): 75-81

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical utility of urinary bladder and prostate characteristics measured by ultrasound scan in predicting acute urinary retention (AUR) for men with bladder outlet obstruction with an underlying benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive men aged >/=50 years presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) or AUR were prospectively recruited in this cross-sectional study. International prostatic symptom score (IPSS) and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were recorded. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure bladder detrusor thickness (DT, mm), prostatic volume (PV, cm3), intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP, mm), bladder wall thickness (BWT,mm), intravesical volume and bladder radius. The latter two parameters were used to estimate bladder weight (UEBW, g), assuming a spherical bladder. RESULTS: Among selected patients, thirty had AUR while 32 men presented with LUTS only. There were significant differences between those with and without AUR in their age (70.5 vs 66.0, p=0.017), IPSS (24.0 vs 18.5, p=0.009), serum PSA (6.18 vs 1.77, p=0.002), PV (56.7 vs 32.4, p=0.006), BWT (5.0 vs 4.4, p=0.034) and UEBW (39.1 vs 25.0, p=0.0003). Multivariate analysis revealed high IPSS and UEBW to be predictors for AUR. UEBW was the strongest predictor of AUR: area under ROC curve was 0.767, with sensitivity and specificity of 63.3% and 87.5%, respectively, at cut-off point of 35 g. The likelihood ratio for AUR was also best with UEBW>/=35 g. CONCLUSIONS: Combined with IPSS, ultrasound determined bladder characteristic, particularly UEBW, is a useful tool in predicting AUR in men with BPH.


Scrotal lump: Do not forget tuberculosis!

Ho C. C., Rusdi A. R.
107-109. 2014; 165(2): 107-109

Scrotal tuberculosis (TB) is rare. Lack of awareness may lead to a misdiagnosis and/or delayed diagnosis of scrotal TB. Clinicians should have a high suspicion index for scrotal TB when facing a patient with a chronic scrotal lump. Since scrotal TB can be medically cured, biopsy of the scrotal lump for pathology study and/or urine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for M. tuberculosis should be performed first for rapid diagnostic purposes, and therefore unnecessary surgery may thereby be circumvented.


Periprostatic lidocaine infiltration versus transrectal lidocaine gel for local anaesthesia in transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy

Ho Christopher Chee Kong, Goh E. H., Praveen S., Zulkifli M. Z.
35-38. 2011; 1(1): 35-38

Management of pain plays an important role during prostate biopsy. Various types of management of pain plays an important role during prostate biopsy. Various types of anaesthetic methods have been used. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy and complication rate between periprostatic lidocaine infiltration and transrectal lidocaine gel in transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. All prostate biopsy patients were included except those with lidocaine, allergy, haemorrhagic diathesis, anticoagulation therapy, the inability to rate a visual analogue scale and inability to obtain consent. They were randomized into two groups. Group 1 received 20ml 2% transrectal lidocaine gel. Group 2 received 5ml 1% lidocaine infiltration for each periprostatic nerve block with 23-gauge spinal needle. After three minutes, prostate biopsy was performed with an 18 gauge 7-inch spring-loaded biopsy gun. Six biopsies were taken for each lobe. Pain during probe insertion, biopsy and immediately after the procedure was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale. Any complication immediately after procedure, one day or after one week, was recorded. Mean pain score was lower after periprostatic lidocaine infiltration compared to transrectal lidocaine gel (3.1 + 1.9 versus 4.9 + 2.4, p = 0.027). There was no statistically significant difference in the complication rate. Transrectal ultrasound prostate biopsy using periprostatic lidocaine infiltration provides better anaesthesia as compared to the transrectal lidocaine gel application with no significant difference in complication. Thus, the use of periprostatic lidocaine infiltration in TRUS guided prostate biopsy is recommended.


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