Kan Spencer K. P., Kay Robert W. W.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1978; 72(5): 522-524
Previous reports of melioidosis in Sabah are reviewed and a detailed account of a case, presenting as prostatitis, in a 40-year-old British male is given. The history suggested that the organism, Pseudomonas pseudomallei, was transmitted by a fly which entered the eye. Diagnosis was delayed and treatment presented some difficulty, the organism being relatively insensitive to amplicillin and gentamicin. Co-trimoxazole was the most effective, followed by minocycline. Cure was eventually achieved and after four years the patient was fit and normal, except for sterility.
Karimi Golgis, Suzana Shahar, Homayouni Nasim, Roslee Rajikan, Nor Faizah Abu Bakar, Md Sham Othman.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP. 2012; 13(9): 4249-4253
While associations between trace elements and heavy metals with prostate cancer are still debatable, they have been considered as risk factors for prostate cancer. Thus, this study aimed to detect any links between selected minerals and heavy metals including Se, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe with prostate cancer. A case control study was carried out among 100 subjects (case n=50, control n=50), matched for age and ethnicity. Trace elements and heavy metals level in hair and nail samples were determined by ICP-MS. Mean selenium levels in hair and nail of the cases were significantly lower as compared to controls. A similar trend was noted for zinc in both hair and nail samples, whereas the mean level of copper was significantly higher in cases than controls. Similar elevation was noted for iron and manganese (p<0.05 for all parameters). Low levels of selenium and zinc and high levels of copper, iron and manganese appear to be associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Further studies to elucidate the causal mechanisms and appropriate chemopreventive measures are needed.
Karuppaiya A., Cheah S. H., Mohd S., Kamal W. H., Zulkifli M. H.
Hybridoma (2005). 2009; 28(2): 133-137
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as a diagnostic marker for the detection of prostate cancer in men. We have generated stable hybridomas producing specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of the IgG class against PSA from fusions of splenocytes from immunized mice with myeloma cells. The hybridomas were adapted into serum-free media and cultured in CELLine CL-1000 bioreactors to produce milligram quantities of MAbs. Cross-reactivity study demonstrated that all the MAbs reacted did not cross-react with several other types of tumor antigens. Two of the MAbs were successfully radiolabeled by the iodogen method. The (125)I-labeled MAbs demonstrated strong binding to PSA on the surface of the LNCaP cells (Kd of 1.16 x 10(-9) M and 1.4 x 10(-9) M). Thus the (125)I-labeled MAbs retained their immunoreactivity and possessed high affinity and is potentially useful for binding to tumor cells. In conclusion, the MAbs can be used to develop radioimmunodiagnostic, radioimaging, and immunohistochemistry techniques for the early detection and treatment of prostate cancer.
Kelly G. M., Kong Y. H., Dobi A., Srivastava S., Sesterhenn I. A., Pathmanathan R., Tan Hui Meng, Tan S. H., Cheong S. C.
Molecular and clinical oncology. 2015; 3(1): 23-30
Overexpression of the erythroblast transformation-specific-related gene (ERG) oncoprotein due to transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-ERG fusion, the most prevalent genomic alteration in prostate cancer (CaP), is more frequently observed among Caucasian patients compared to patients of African or Asian descent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the prevalence of ERG alterations in a multiethnic cohort of CaP patients. A total of 191 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy specimens, collected from 120 patients treated at the Sime Darby Medical Centre, Subang Jaya, Malaysia, were analyzed for ERG protein expression by immunohistochemistry using the anti-ERG monoclonal antibody 9FY as a surrogate for the detection of ERG fusion events. The overall frequency of ERG protein expression in the population evaluated in this study was 39.2%. Although seemingly similar to rates reported in other Asian communities, the expression of ERG was distinct amongst different ethnic groups (P=0.004). Malaysian Indian (MI) patients exhibited exceedingly high expression of ERG in their tumors, almost doubling that of Malaysian Chinese (MC) patients, whereas ERG expression was very low amongst Malay patients (12.5%). When collectively analyzing data, we observed a significant correlation between younger patients and higher ERG expression (P=0.04). The prevalence of ERG expression was significantly different amongst CaP patients of different ethnicities. The higher number of ERG-expressing tumors among MI patients suggested that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of CaP amongst this group of patients. Furthermore, the more frequent expression of ERG among the younger patients analyzed suggested an involvement of ERG in the early onset of CaP. The results of this study underline the value of using ERG status to better understand the differences in the etiology of CaP initiation and progression between ethnic groups.
Khairil O. A., Zulfiqar A., Thambidorai C. R., Nizam J. M., Ahmad J. T., Jamil M. A.
The Medical journal of Malaysia. 2005; 60(4): 469-474
In the initial clinical examination of a child with ambiguous genitalia an accurate measurement of the corporeal length is needed. Most often the corporeal length is measured with a ruler from the symphysis pubis to the tip of the glans of a stretched penis. More recently, ultrasound has been successfully used to measure corporeal length. This study aimed to (i) establish normal values for corporeal length in normal male newborns using ultrasound measurement, (ii) compare these measurements to stretched corporeal measurements, (iii) compare the corporeal length of newborns of different races, and (iv) determine the relationship between corporeal length and birth weight, birth length and head circumference. This was a prospective study of 141 newborns. Ultrasound imaging was done in an oblique parasagittal plane such that the corpus could be included in a single image and measured, Stretched corporeal length was measured with the penis stretched alongside a wooden spatula and the length from the pubic bone to the tip of the glans was marked on the spatula and measured. By ultrasound measurement the mean corporeal length of the normal newborn was 3.18 +/- 0.56cm. There was no significant difference in the mean corporeal length when determined by ultrasound and by stretched corporeal measurement. There was no significant difference in the mean corporeal length of the different races when the length was determined by either ultrasound or stretched corporeal measurement. There was a positive correlation between ultrasound length and birth weight and birth length. However, there was no correlation between ultrasound length and head circumference. There was no significant correlation between the stretched length and either birth weight, birth length or head circumference.