Chai C. Y., Md Nasir Md Taib.
Malaysian journal of nutrition. 2005; 11(1): S43-S43
This cross sectional descriptive research was conducted to determine the relationship between body composition, body image perception, energy balance, and dietary practice among male athletes in Sport School Bukit Jalil. Data were collected using a questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), Body Cathexis Scale, 2-day 24-hour dietary and activity records, and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). A total of 31 male athletes ranging in age from 13 to 15 years old were involved in this study. They comprised 10 Malays (32.3%), 16 Chinese (51.6%), 2 Indians (6.5%) and 3 other races (9.7%). The athletes were involved in any one of the following sports: basketball, badminton, cricket, athletic, squash, diving, gymnastics and weight lifting. Results showed that the athletes' involvement in sports ranged from 1 to 8 years. Their mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 19.6¬±2.7 kg/m2 and none of the athletes were obese, 1 (3.2%) was underweight, 25 (80.7%) were normal weight, and 5 (16.1%) overweight. By comparing the respondents' actual BMI to their perceived body weight status, 11 (35.5%) respondents were categorised as under estimators, 1 (3.2%) over estimators, and 19 (61.3%) as correct estimators of their body weight. Using the CDRS, the mean for current body size and ideal body size perceptions were 5¬±1.2 and 5.1¬±0.4 respectively. Most of the subjects (80.6%) chose figure number 5 as their ideal body size. The mean total body parts satisfaction score was 32.4¬±4.6 and all of the respondents were categorised as being dissatisfied with their body parts. The mean for energy intake, energy expenditure and energy balance were 1787.3¬±502.4 kcal, 1955.7¬±591.3 kcal, and -168.4¬±655.5 kcal respectively. Mean percentage contributions of carbohydrate, protein and fat to total energy intake were 52.2¬±13.3%, 22.5¬±4.6% and 33.5¬±8.8% respectively. The mean total score for EAT-26 was 10.9¬±7.3, but 4 (12.9%) subjects were categorised as being prone to eating disorders. Eight (25.8%) subjects were taking supplements; 6 (75%) were taking vitamin C and 2 (25%) were taking protein supplements. There is a strong positive correlation between BMI and perception of current body size (r=0.771, p<0.01), indicating that the athletes were generally able to perceive correctly their current body size. There is a weak negative correlation between energy balance and BMI (r=-0.397, p<0.05), showing that subjects with high BMI may tend to be in a negative energy balance, perhaps to lose weight. Results show that the athletes generally had normal body weight and body fat, but some of them had incorrect body image. Most of the athletes had a negative energy balance and 4 (12.9%) subjects were identified as being prone to eating disorders. Prevention programmes on healthy body image perception and healthy dietary practices should be designed specially for these athletes.
Chin Kok Yong, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, Ibrahim S., Mohamed I. N., Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah
Nutrients. 2014; 6(12): 5419-5433
Vitamin D insufficiency is a global health problem. The data on vitamin D status in Malaysian men is insufficient. This study aimed to investigate vitamin D status among Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia and its associating factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 383 men aged 20 years and above, residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their age, ethnicity, body anthropometry and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were recorded. Their fasting blood was collected for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid (PTH), total calcium and inorganic phosphate assays. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D level <30 nmol/L and insufficiency as a serum 25(OH)D level between 30 and 50 nmol/L. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 0.5%, and insufficiency was 22.7%. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were more prevalent in the Malays compared to the Chinese. Being Chinese, older in age, having lower body mass index (BMI) and a high physical activity status were associated significantly with a higher serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.05). The serum PTH level was inversely associated with the serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.05). As a conclusion, a significant proportion of Malaysian men have vitamin D insufficiency, although deficiency is uncommon. Steps should be taken to correct the vitamin D status of these men.
Dvorak J., George J., Junge A., Hodler J.
British journal of sports medicine. 2007; 41(1): 45-52
BACKGROUND: In football there are established age-related tournaments for males and females to guarantee equal chances within the game for all the different age groups. To prevent participation in the incorrect age group, and owing to the fact that in some Asian and African countries registration at birth is not compulsory, other methods of age determination need to be available. Standard radiographs of the left wrist have been used for assessment of skeletal age for many years. This is, however, not ethical in the sporting environment. AIM: To study the possible use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has no radiation risk, in estimating the age of healthy adolescent football players. METHODS: The examination protocol was applied in four countries using, their respective MRI equipment using a 1-T or 1.5-T magnet and a wrist coil. 496 healthy male adolescent football players between the ages of 14 and 19 years from Switzerland, Malaysia, Algeria and Argentina were selected for the study. The degree of fusion of the left distal radial physis was determined by three independent raters by a newly developed grading system which can be used in future MRI epiphysial fusion grading studies. RESULTS: The inter-rater reliability for grading was high (r = 0.91 and 0.92); all correlations were highly significant (p<0.001). The average age increased with a higher grading of fusion, and the correlation between age and grade of fusion was highly significant (r = 0.69, p<0.001). Only one player (0.8%) in the 16-year-old age group was graded as completely fused. CONCLUSION: MRI of the wrist offers an alternative as a non-invasive method of age determination in 14-19-year-old male adolescents. The grading system presented here clearly identifies the skeletal maturity by complete fusion in all MRI slices, which eliminates any risk associated with standard radiographic rating as determined by the International Atomic Energy Agency.
Gan Wan Ying, Md Nasir Md Taib, Zalilah Md Shariff, Hazizi Abu Saad.
Malaysian journal of nutrition. 2011; 17(2): 213-228
INTRODUCTION: University students are potentially important targets for the promotion of healthy lifestyles as this may reduce the risks of lifestyle-related disorders later in life. This cross-sectional study examined differences in eating behaviours, dietary intake, weight status, and body composition between male and female university students. METHODOLOGY: A total of 584 students (59.4% females and 40.6% males) aged 20.6 +/- 1.4 years from four Malaysian universities in the Klang Valley participated in this study. Participants completed the Eating Behaviours Questionnaire and two-day 24-hour dietary recall. Body weight, height, waist circumference and percentage of body fat were measured. RESULTS: About 14.3% of males and 22.4% of females were underweight, while 14.0% of males and 12.3% of females were overweight and obese. A majority of the participants (73.8% males and 74.6% females) skipped at least one meal daily in the past seven days. Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal. Both males and females frequently snacked during morning tea time. Fruits and biscuits were the most frequently consumed snack items. More than half of the participants did not meet the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for energy, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, iron (females only), and calcium. Significantly more males than females achieved the RNI levels for energy, protein and iron intakes. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the presence of unhealthy eating behaviours, inadequate nutrient intake, and a high prevalence of underweight among university students. Energy and nutrient intakes differed between the sexes. Therefore, promoting healthy eating among young adults is crucial to achieve a healthy nutritional status.